HOBBIES+BEYOND OIL PAINT RENDERING TECHNIQUES

Oil Paint Rendering

Oil Paint Rendering By Michael Rinald Introduction To Oil Paint Rendering Technique

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Oil Paint Rendering

An Introduction by Michael Rinaldi

Introduction

In the past few years, as I produce more and more modeling articles, I came to realize there was always one step that I felt I was never fully explaining correctly, or to its fullest extent, and this was hampering my efforts to completely extrapolate the entire techniques used on each of my models.

When I thought about the singular element to my work that truly makes it mine (that signature process), I have to say it is the use of oil paints in my paint jobs. However, I had been trying to describe my use of oils within the confines of current terminology, specifically “oil paint fading” and “the oil dot method”, neither of which explain my process correctly—nor was it a simple combination of both. So by this notion I had to become responsible for my actions and define this step as a clear and concise technique that I could then refine further into a teachable method.

What’s In A Name?

I have a formal background in art and design, and the same idea and thought process is used in what is called a rendering. In simplistic terms, a rendering is a piece of illustration or artwork created by its author specifically with the intention to portray the subject matter at its best with a lot of clarity and information over each area.

When this idea is applied to scale modeling, and specifically to my use of oil paints, I realized that I was indeed “rendering” the paint so it could be its absolute best. It was this basic concept that led me to name the technique oil paint rendering (OPR) since it fully encompasses all that I am trying to achieve with this critical stage of the painting process.

By definition this is not a new style, but truly an application technique used as part of the larger step-by-step process of painting and weathering. It can replace and/or augment nearly any other existing method used, and the oils can be applied to any subject, any model, and over any type of paint.

What Is The Goal Of Oil Paint Rendering?

To keep to the rendering concept, I use oil paint to “micro-manage” the colors within each section of a model’s surface to extract the maximum visual effects that I can from each area, with each effect telling a bit of the story about the life of the vehicle. The goal is to show the viewer a level of detail within a paint job in as strong, or as subtle, of a way that the author of the model intends, thus maximizing the level of information about the model within its paint job. For example, on the side of a tank there may be tool brackets, shell impacts, dust and mud, stowed gear, you name it…and after the basic paint colors have been applied, you can go back over each area and greatly enhance its visual information by adding specific oil colors that can darken, lighten, fade, tint, streak, diffuse–nearly any effect you can think of–the underlying basecoat to create what you need to clearly illustrate the area.

In the most simplistic definition of OPR, the modeler will apply small amounts of oil paint to the painted model’s surface and then simply blend it out to create certain effects. Each color can be layered over one another to add depth to the finish until the process is completed, which is at the discretion of the modeler.

Why Oil Paint?

The reason I utilize oil paint is for three very basic and fundamental reasons. One, oils are infinitely translucent. Their opacity range is from 0-100% and this is an extraordinarily powerful thing, thus maximizing the range of values and hues that can be created with them. Two, they are very easy to blend, which bodes well for all skill levels and allows for maximum creativity. And three, they are slow drying and this allows the modeler ample time to control the process to its fullest exten, unlike an acrylic or enamel that have much shorter drying and blending times. In all three cases, I have found oils to be superior to any other medium for this specific purpose and as such they have become forever linked with my models.

Additionally, the results are consistent and repeatable across any skill level, and from there it boils down to practice of the technique that will fully allow the modeler to realize the maximum from this idea. One of the strengths of oil paint rendering is that it can be applied as little, or as much as you require, to any style of paint job imaginable. Nothing is written in stone, there are no restrictions with its use (outside of the basic application technique that works best), the costs are easily controlled because the amounts used are small and the tubes of oil last a very long time, plus there are plenty of product options available from a wide variety of sources.

Prepping The Oil Paint Palette

The best thing to do is to keep it simple and try not to over think what is right in front of you. The painted model will already dictate to you what colors you will need for this step. But because each model is unique and different I will just give a basic outline of colors to use in this introduction article. In the future, I will write specific articles that pertain to very specific subjects and paint jobs.

So first off, you need to prepare a palette, which is very cheap and easy to make. I cut up small squares of brown cardboard–nothing fancy, an old shipping box is perfect. The reason for the cardboard is that oil paint has a product in it called “linseed oil” and is there for the regular artists that paint on canvas, however, for our modeling purposes we actually want it absorbed out of the oil. Why? Because when the linseed oil is absorbed out the paint will be easier to blend, it dries much faster, and (most importantly) dries quickly to a matte finish.

With the palette cut I add a tiny ¼” piece of double-side tape on the back, which will help to keep it in place on the bench (the cardboard is so light, the brush will easily move it around). I then take my oils out and using the flat end of a small artist spatula (I use the Tamiya Paint Stirrer), place a small pea-size amount of each oil color on the cardboard that I want to use on the model. I tend to be fairly organized with this and place similar colors next to each other, which also makes it more efficient to grab each oil color, or mix them together, for each step of the process. When completed, my palette will have anywhere from 10-20 colors on it, but that is dependant on the model itself.

Here is a basic breakdown of the colors I typically use on my palette, and what they are used for. In each color’s case they can be used from 0-100% opacity depending on need:

White And Light Tans/Buff – used for general fading, adding dust, whitewashes, and lightening (when mixing) other colors to create additional shades.

Yellows (from pale yellow to orangish-red) – used for tinting greens and Dunkelgelb paintjobs, plus add light rust tones, or warm tones in general.

Dark Browns (from rust tones to very dark almost black-brown) – used for shadows, heavy rust, grease, dirt and mud that can be caused by any factor or elements, great for stains too.

Greens – used to enhance any green or yellow camo, from OD to pale green, also good for green moss and similar plant life, overall limited uses, but very powerful for military models.

Reds – used to fade/enhance red primer, red/brown camo, and red markings or add any strong red tone.

Blues – used to fade/enhance Panzergrau, anything with blue camo and markings, etc. Can also be used to tint green paint schemes, such as OD or forest green, for a more bluish tint.

Black – rarely used, and usually just for the darkest shadows, or darkest oil stains and exhausts, and to enhance exposed metallic edges, also used to darken other colors.

Grays – used to deaden a color (to make it more neutral), imparts a cool color tone that is good for winter finishes, can also be used to lighten some darker tones, and for fading Panzergrau tones.

Light Browns – used a lot for middle earth tones and summer finishes, often mixed with other colors to create special earth tones.

Brushes And Thinner

Next up are the brushes. For the application brushes my primary brush preference is for a nice quality #2 Round (such as Loew Cornell’s 7020 #2 Ultra Round). I find the #2 Round maintains the best sharp tip over time, and has enough bristle length to hold plenty of material so it doesn’t dry out too fast.

For the blending brushes I use a couple of different styles. One is a “¼ Filb Rake”, and the other “¼ Angular”. Both of these can be turned on end for fine streaking and the two brush ends gives a lot of variety in how to blend the oil into the surface, which can vary from vertical to horizontal in nature. I also keep a clean #2 Round handy for more precise blending as well.

For the thinner, I use high-quality odorless turpentine. I strongly recommend at least a quality art store brand, and better still–use the 502 Abt. “Odourless Turpentine” from Mig Productions, or the new AK Interactive “Odourless Turpentine” product. These are the best products available for our use. I do not recommend using enamel thinner for this technique because it does not provide the right consistency for blending, and is too strong of a thinner in general–plus it smells terrible for prolonged use.

Application Method

The actual procedure for the technique is quite simple. It entails taking an application brush, dabbing it in the oil needed, and then painting (or placing) that oil exactly where you want it, followed by a quick blend with one of the blending brushes. It is very important to make sure the blending brush is nearly dry with only the slightest amount of thinner on it. (I use a paper towel to unload my brush on before blending it.) In most cases, the drier the blending brush, the better. And clean it often, this is also very important. However, I do recommend practicing this first to see how it performs; only by doing this can you clearly see the quantity of thinner needed. This process is then repeated for as many times and colors, as you require. The adage “less is more” is very pertinent to this technique–a little goes a very long way.

As for surface quality, I tend to work from a matte-to-satin level of finish in my paint jobs. After the proceeding filters and pinwash steps, I might spray a light varnish coat on top, however, the results of the blending are more dependent upon the quality of the initial basecoat than anything else. It is important to create a quality paintjob at the airbrushing stage. I do not usually use gloss varnishes with my models, because the blending is more slippery and harder to control on the smoother gloss surface, which is why I prefer a more matte/satin finish for its inherent grip of the oils. I do not seal the model afterwards either, otherwise you will lose the myriad of subtle sheens created that are important to the overall final aesthetic.

Regarding the colors themselves, some are more difficult to use such as white, for example. Adding white to a darker base coat could quickly stain it and make it hard to blend out, so I recommend pre-wetting a surface if you are experiencing this particular problem.

Note: I always recommend a test run on a scrap model anytime you use a new product or technique for the first time, this will give you a lot of help to see how it is going to work for your project.

When Is It Best To Use The Oil Paint Rendering Step?

I typically use this technique after the model has been painted in base colors and camo; the markings are applied; the tools, the tires and details painted; a filter has been applied; and the first pinwash is applied. From this point on, I will use the oil paint rendering step right up to when I apply the pigments, which is typically near the very end of the weathering process. Once pigments are on and set in place, I will continue with more OPR to create as much harmony and balance on any area that it is needed. The basic principle in action is that I layer all of the methods on top of one another to create as much depth and interest to the finish as I can. However, there is no hard rule, or clearly defined limiting factor, on when to start or stop using it on a project.

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Oil Paint Rendering By Michael Rinald Preparing To Render Oil Paint

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The Sbs Photos Of The Application Process

For this winter whitewashed Panther turret I am using a simple brown-based color palette, with the intent to primarily show the correct application technique. The plain sides present some unique challenges without a lot of bolted-on detail to enhance, and this is very typical for a lot of clean surfaces. Also, please note the fundamentally dry appearance of the blending brush.

In addition, stippling (the process of dabbing the brush on the surface) is a very crucial blending technique that is used to achieving certain effects like diffused colors, since not everything is always streaked downward (even on a vertical surface like this demo subject), and this will usually depend on the effect needed and its location. These photos were shot sequentially, and please note how I layer the colors on top of one another (usually from light to dark) to maximize the depth of tones possible in a given area.

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Oil Paint Rendering By Michael Rinaldi Example 1

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Oil Paint Rendering By Michael Rinaldi Example 2

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Oil Paint Rendering By Michael Rinald Before And After Results

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In Conclusion

Hopefully this introductory article demonstrates the idea behind my new oil paint rendering technique. I have been using this process for a long while now and it has been the indelible element to my painting that truly makes my models unique. Using oil paints in scale modeling is not a new concept, but the degree to which I am using them, and the broad spectrum of results attainable has concluded that I can only provide the fullest extent of this information by establishing it as a viable and teachable technique with its own terminology so others in the hobby can also gain from its use, both by discussion and execution of it on your own work.

Additionally, this technique is not intended as a fast method, and usually takes a few periods of time at the bench to complete, especially with the first application layer. The modeler must be thoughtful in what colors are applied where. As mentioned above, it is intended to enhance every area of the model and there is no right or wrong way with its use.

I would also like to personally thank Mig Productions, USA and AK Interactive, USA for their continued support of my work. The products provided by them are truly of the highest quality levels for scale modeling and I highly recommend both brands. I would also like to thank Richard Williams, Tracy Hancock, Mario Eens, Staf Snyers and Adam Wilder for their advice in writing this article.

Model, Images and Text Copyright © 2011 by Mike Rinaldi

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Michael Rinaldi is a renown author of outstanding books on Model Weathering found at Rinaldi Studio Press

Article originally appeared in Missing-Lynx

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HOBBIES & BEYOND TAMIYA PAINT COLOUR APPLICATION CHARTS AND CAMOUFLAGE GUIDE

TAMIYA ACRYLIC PAINT APPLICATIONS

TAMIYA ACRYLIC PAINT APPLICATIONS

TAMIYA PAINT MIXES

Vehicles, Equipment, Uniforms, Fabric,
Leather, Tools, Ammunition and Camouflage

In the real world there is always a discrepancy between that of theory and one of practicality. For consistency of colours and uniform applications various colour standards were created. In theory that is how it worked, however in the real world necessity, supply, field applications, environmental effects, sun fading and operational conditions such as dust, battle field debris, rain and soil conditions creating a natural filter effect altering the underlying base colour. With TAMIYA Acrylic Paint Applications we have come up with many colour solutions for specific problems.

There are two theories, the first being Historically Accurate Colours, the second Optical Match System, creating colours, hues, shades replicating the actual colours as close as possible for a pleasing historical representation.

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For example the colourful and creative LUFTWAFFE of WW II camouflage schemes used RLM colours, the colour standard created in 1927 by the German Reichs-Ausschuß für Lieferbedingungen und Gütesicherung (Imperial Commission for Delivery Terms and Quality Assurance) a standard of forty colours under the name of “RAL 840”.

By May 1945 there were 140 registered colours in use by WEHRMACHT organizations, HEER, LUFTWAFFE and KRIEGSMARINE.
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HOBBIES+BEYOND LUFTWAFFE BF 109 E7 DAK CAMOUFLAGE PATTERNS

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HOW TO PROPERLY USE TAMIYA PAINTS

How to properly use TAMIYA PAINTS is a technique involving a few simple practices. A moment of careful preparation prevents hours of pain fixing a botched paint job on the model you spent hours and hours building and crafting to your liking.

An airbrush is a powerful tool, a joy to work with providing one understands air pressure, flow rate, nozzle distance, airbrush tips such as a Crown Tip, MAC Valve, Pre-set, needle size, double actioning, snapping on and off, holding it properly and most of all, cleaning it. Learning how to use an airbrush from the outset means you can accomplish many techniques and effects impossible with an artists brush. Practising bad form using an airbrush will most likely produce continued bad results regardless how mush one practices. We know what we know, right? Learning proper technique and practising the techniques will do wonders for your airbrushing with hours of enjoyment and pleasure. The end result is working with an airbrush is tremendously rewarding producing amazing results.

In the following video on how to use TAMIYA PAINTS properly you will learn the fundamentals of achieving a great finish. When one encounters problems with acrylic paints we have found it has more to do with technique and thinning rather then the paint. Remember, do not thin your paint with water and use only the manufacturers recommended thinners, X-20A and LACQUER THINNER. Expert modellers recommend using TAMIYA AIRBRUSH CLEANER for the best results. Enjoy the show.

AFV EQUIPMENT & CAMOUFLAGE COLOUR FORMULATIONS

We endeavour to compile a comprehensive colour library of colour pigments using TAMIYA PAINT COLOURS, a high quality line of paints available in both Acrylic and TAMIYA COLOUR lacquer based variants, the latter in aerosol cans.

Colour calibrations are defined with drops, an easy and predictable standard of measurement, a colour currency for consistent change, in this case consistent colour reproduction batch to batch.

Test the colour combinations to determine if the hue, shade or tint is to your liking or representative of the authentic colour you are seeking. Keep in mind environmental conditions such as direct sunlight, angle of sun (morning, midday, late afternoon, evening) shade, varying degrees of overcast cloud cover, fading, intensity or thoroughness of field application, rain fall, dust, dirt and grime accumulation, all act as filters and washes changing the original chroma.

Adding black or white dulls and mutes the colours and should only be used for shading (black) making it darker or tinting (white) making it paler.

To keep the colour intensity alive, use the representative colour to lighten or darken. To keep green alive, to darken it as in a shadow effect add blue (pure blue: X-4, XF-8), to make green lighter add yellow (pure yellow: X-8, XF-3). A little red (pure red: X-7, XF-7) will alter the green changing it towards an olive-green.

In real life looking at an actual vehicle of any type or colour photograph our eyes play tricks on us as there are three things at work direct lighting, indirect lighting and radiosity, the latter where light bouncing around a vehicle will pick up ambient colours from the previous surface adding it to the next.

For example a new light brown ammunition crate made with freshly cut wood sitting on the back deck near the turret of a T-34 tank painted with Russian 4BO will pick up a green tinge making it look more like a Khaki Green by the sun light reflected off the turret.

Looking at the same crate from a different angle will change the colour again. However to our brain, we know what the colour of freshly cut wood looks like from experience, therefore we see freshly cut wood colour, when in reality it is more of a Khaki Green colour due to the effect of radiosity. With awareness of a trained eye, one will be able to see the colour differences and distinctions.

RADIOSITY & SCALE EFFECT

Painting our scale models without applying scale effect results in overly dark, unrealistic colour. With scale effect applied, we have a realistic representation as if compared side by side, our scale model next to the actual vehicle. It has to do with reflected light off the various surface angles.

Thinking about radiosity and applying different colour intensities and hues as in the case of our wooden crate example we can create a ‘real’ visual experience, creating a new dynamic of authenticity to our model.

Does it need to be a complicated and time consuming process one may ask? The answer is no.

The use of an appropriate filter colour such as TAMIYA CLEAR COLOURS or a wash altering the chroma will suffice for that one specific radiosity illuminated surface, not the entire crate. For the remaining vertical and horizontal crate surfaces use shading, a gradient or blending effect will work perfectly. The result will be a convincing realistic effect.

 

TAMIYA COLOUR and CAMOUFLAGE APPLICATIONS
TESTED TAMIYA PAINT MIXES

TANKS

WWI British Tank Service Brown Colour

The TAMIYA Mix produces a brown/khaki colour closely resembling the hues of original equipment during WWI. Given the original Service Brown Colour formulation contains, white, burnt turkey (burnt ochre‽), lamp post black (not a true black) and raw linseed oil (yellowish to yellow-brown; medium maple syrup colour) by weight, batch results could vary from one to the next. Perhaps the bench mark for consistency was the calibration standard of “it’s close enough”.

XF-68 NATO Brown: 5
XF-3 Flat Yellow:   4
XF-69 NATO Black: 1

WWI British Landship Brown

Mk.1 to Mk.IV Tank Body Plate and Sponsons

XF-52 Flat Earth: 5
XF-55 Deck Tan: 5

X-10 Gun Metal
X-11 Chrome Silver
X-12 Gold Leaf
XF-57 Buff
XF-2 Flat White
XF-64 Red Brown
XF-7 Flat Red
XF-84 Dark Iron

Soviet Russia 4B0 Green

XF-73 Dark Green (JSDF): 6
XF-4 Yellow Green: 4
XF-49 Khak: 3
XF-27 Black Green: 1 (deeper green)

XF-17 :Sea Blue; Shading; drop by drop for desired colour contrast
XF-4 Yellow Green: Highlights to lighten; drop by drop for desired colour contrast

Soviet Russia Protective Green

XF-4 Yellow Green: 5
XF-58 Olive Green: 5

Soviet Russia Light Sand or 4BG

XF-59 Desert Yellow: 5
XF-62 Olive Drab: 5

Adjust colour drop by drop for colour dominance shift for desired hue.

Soviet Green Post War

XF-67  NATO GREEN

Desert Pink

Believed to be in use to end of the North African Campaign in May 1943, when it was replaced by Light Mud

XF-2 Flat White: 5
XF-15 Flat Flesh: 5
XF-52 Flat Earth: 1

Light Mud

XF-55 Deck Tan: 4 (increase by 1 for more hue intensity)
XF-49 Khaki: 2
XF-66 Light Gray: 1

British SCC 15

Option 1
XF-61 Dark Green: 5
XF-62 Olive Drab: 2
XF-3 Flat Yellow: 2

Option 2
XF-81 Dark Green 2 RAF: 5
XF-58 Olive Green: 1
XF-7 Flat Red: 11

 

XF-49 Khaki Seats, bags, etc.
XF-52 Flat Earth British and Italian tanks
XF-57 Buff Camouflage on U.S. tanks
XF-58 Olive green U.S. tanks
XF-59 Desert yellow British tanks seen in the desert
XF-60 Dark yellow German tanks
XF-61 Dark green British or Russian tanks & camouflage German tanks
XF-62 Olive drab U.S. tanks or other modern tanks
XF-63 German grey German tanks
XF-64 Red brown German and British tanks
XF-66 Light grey Interior of tanks

FIGURES

XF-1 Flat black German tank crews
XF-49 Khaki Japanese Army infantry on the Southern Border
XF-50 Field blue Russian Air Force crew
XF-51 Khaki drab U.S. and Russian Army infantry
XF-58 Olive green U.S. Army infantry
XF-59 Desert yellow British Army infantry in Africa
XF-60 Dark yellow German Africa Corps
XF-65 Field Grey German Army
XF-10 Flat brown Hair, leather and wood part of guns
XF-15 Flat flesh Face
XF-57 Buff Bags, etc.

JAPANESE AIRCRAFT

XF-11 JN green Upper side of the Navy plane
XF-12 JN grey Lower side of the Navy plane
XF-13 JA green Upper side of the Army plane
XF-14 JA grey Lower side of the Army plane
XF-16 Flat aluminum Silver fuselage without colouring
X-13 Metallic blue Interior of the plane

U.S. AIRCRAFT

XF-2 Flat white Lower side of the Navy plane
XF-4 Yellow green Interior of the plane
XF-16 Flat aluminum Silver fuselage without colouring
XF-17 Sea blue Camouflage on Navy plane
XF-18 Medium blue Camouflage on Navy plane
XF-19 Sky grey Overall painting of Navy plane
XF-53 Neutral grey Lower side of Army plane
XF-62 Olive drab Upper side of Army plane

BRITISH AIRCRAFT

XF-20 Medium grey Lower side of the plane
XF-21 Sky Lower side of the plane
XF-53 Neutral grey Camouflage
XF-60 Dark yellow Camouflage
XF-61 Dark green Camouflage
XF-64 Red brown Camouflage

SHIPS

XF-9 Hull red Bottom of the hull
XF-25 Light sea grey Hull of British ships
XF-53 Neutral grey Light hull colouring
XF-54 Dark sea grey Dark hull colouring
XF-55 Deck tan Wooden deck
XF-64 Red brown Linoleum decking

GERMAN AIRCRAFT

XF-22 RLM grey Interior of the plane
XF-23 Light blue Lower side of the plane
XF-24 Dark grey Camouflage
XF-25 Light sea grey Camouflage
XF-26 Deep green Camouflage
XF-27 Black green Camouflage

FS Colours – Aircraft

FS 30219 SEA Tan United States Military

To one pot of XF-59 (10ML) add 50 drops of XF-52 and 20 drops of XF-68.

FS 34092 Euro I Dark Green Military: United States
To one pot of XF-26 (10ML) add 105 drops of XF-24 and 10 drops of XF-8.
OR
XF-11 – J.N. GREEN: 3
XF-58 – OLIVE GREEN: 2

FS 36081 Euro I Gray

Aircraft: United States From: Model Art 236 – (F-15)
XF-24 – DARK GREY: 9
XF-1 – FLAT BLACK: 8
XF-3 – FLAT YELLOW: 3

FS 34102 Medium Green

Military: United States
To one pot of XF-67 add 45 drops of XF-3 yellow.
OR
XF-62 – OLIVE DRAB: 1
X4 – BLUE: 1

FS 35622 Israeli blue/Duck Egg Blue

Military: United States
To one 10Ml pot of flat white, add 15 drops of X-23 clear blue and 6 drops of X-25
clear green

FS 35450 Air Superiority Blue

Aircraft: United States
XF-2 – FLAT WHITE: 85
X3 – ROYAL BLUE: 9
XF-1 – FLAT BLACK: 5
XF-9 – HULL RED: 1

FS 36231 Dark Gull Gray

Aircraft: United States
XF-24 – DARK GREY:11
XF-20 – MEDIUM GREY: 9

FS 36440 Light Gull Grey

Aircraft: United States From: Tamiya Kit 61034: F4F Wildcat FS36440, ANA 620, or BS495.

Used on lower surfaces of all USN/USMC aircraft 1940-
1942. Ref: Official Monogram US Navy & Marine Corps Aircraft colour Guide.
XF-19 – SKY GREY: 2 XF-2 – FLAT WHITE: 1

FS 36320 Dark Ghost Gray

Aircraft: United States
XF-66 – LIGHT GREY: 11
XF-2 – FLAT WHITE: 7
XF-24 – DARK GREY: 2

FS 36375 Light Ghost Gray

Aircraft: United States
XF-2 – FLAT WHITE: 15
XF-24 – DARK GREY: 3
XF-66 – LIGHT GREY: 2

FS 30109 Roundel Red

Aircraft: United Kingdom From: Spitfire Vb
colour used in British insignias from 1941 to 1946
XF-7 – FLAT RED: 10
XF-9 – HULL RED: 1

FS 35189 Non-Specular Blue-Grey

FS35189 or BS (British Standard) 485 used on upper surfaces of USN/USMC aircraft
from 1941-1942. Ref: Official Monogram US Navy & Marine Corps Aircraft colour Guide.
XF-18 MEDIUM BLUE: 3
XF-2 – FLAT WHITE: 1

F-15 Avionics Bay

Aircraft: United States
XF-16 – FLAT ALUMINUM: 5
X23 – CLEAR BLUE: 3
X24 – CLEAR YELLOW: 2

RLM – Luftwaffe colours

RLM 02

XF-22 – RLM GREY: 1
XF-49 – KHAKI: 1
XF-2 – FLAT WHITE: 1

RLM 02 – Grau

XF-22 – RLM GREY: 60
XF-52 – FLAT EARTH: 30
XF-2 – FLAT WHITE: 10

RLM 70 – Schwarzgrun

XF-11 – J.N. GREEN: 90
XF-1 – FLAT BLACK: 10

RLM 71 – Dunkelgrun

XF-11 – J.N. GREEN: 70
XF-60 – DARK YELLOW: 25
XF-10 – FLAT BROWN: 5

RLM 74

XF-2 – FLAT WHITE: 2
XF-24 – DARK GREY: 2
XF-27 – BLACK GREEN: 1

RLM 75

XF-2 – FLAT WHITE: 15
XF-24 – DARK GREY: 5
X27 – CLEAR RED: 1

RLM 76

XF-2 – FLAT WHITE: 19
XF-19 – SKY GREY: 6
XF-23 – LIGHT BLUE: 3
X23 – CLEAR BLUE: 1

RLM 76 – Lichtblau

XF-19 – SKY GREY: 55
XF-23 – LIGHT BLUE: 30
XF-2 – FLAT WHITE: 15

RLM 81 Braun-Violett

XF-61 – DARK GREEN: 7
XF-64 – RED BROWN: 3
XF-2 – FLAT WHITE: 1

RLM 82 Hellgrun

XF-26 – DEEP GREEN: 8
XF-61 – DARK GREEN: 1
XF-2 – FLAT WHITE: 1

RLM 82 Hellgrun

XF-26 – DEEP GREEN: 8
XF-61 – DARK GREEN: 1

WWII Allied Aircraft Colours

Azure

Aircraft: United Kingdom
XF-16 FLAT ALUMINUM: 2
XF-2 FLAT WHITE: 10
XF-18 MEDIUM BLUE

WWII French Light Blue-Gray

Aircraft: France
XF-2 – FLAT WHITE: 1
XF-25 – LIGHT SEA GREY: 2
OR
Aircraft: France
XF-18 MEDIUM BLUE: 1
XF-53 – NEUTRAL GREY: 2
XF-2 – FLAT WHITE: 1

WWII French French Kaki (Khaki)

Aircraft: France
XF-26 – DEEP GREEN:
OR
XF-5 – FLAT GREEN: 1
XF-49 – KHAKI: 1

WWII French Interior

Aircraft: France
XF-18 MEDIUM BLUE: 1

Dark Earth

Aircraft: United Kingdom
XF-52 – FLAT EARTH: 1
XF-64 – RED BROWN: 1

Dark Green

Aircraft: United Kingdom
XF-58 – OLIVE GREEN: 1
XF-62 – OLIVE DRAB: 5

Fuel Tank Red

Aircraft: United Kingdom
XF-7 – FLAT RED: 5
XF-9 – HULL RED: 1

Interior Green (Navy)

Aircraft: United States
XF-3 – FLAT YELLOW: 1
XF-5 – FLAT GREEN: 1

Japanese interior green

Aircraft: Japan
XF-3 – FLAT YELLOW: 1
XF-21 – SKY: 1
XF-58 – OLIVE GREEN: 1

Mediterranean Dk Sea Blue

Aircraft: United Kingdom
X3 – ROYAL BLUE: 10
XF-2 – FLAT WHITE: 1
X21 – FLAT BASE: 2
XF-19 – SKY GREY: 1

Mediterranean Lt Sea Blue

Aircraft: United Kingdom
XF-18 MEDIUM BLUE: 10
XF-2 – FLAT WHITE: 1

Middle Stone

Aircraft: United Kingdom
XF-59 – DESERT YELLOW: 1
XF-60 – DARK YELLOW: 1

Non-Specular Blue-Grey

Aircraft: United States
FS35189 or BS(British Standard)485 used on upper surfaces of USN/USMC aircraft
from 1941-1942. Ref: Official Monogram US Navy & Marine Corps Aircraft colour.
XF-18 MEDIUM BLUE: 3
XF-2 – FLAT WHITE: 1

Non-Specular Sea Blue

Aircraft: United States

FS 35042 (Non-Specular Sea Blue) is, of course, the colour of the top fuselage
surfaces of USN aircraft after 1942.
XF-17 (Sea Blue) is a pretty good approximation of this colour, but to my eye, it looks
a little too green, and maybe a little too dark.
XF-17 : 6
XF-8 : 6
XF-53 : 1 (Maybe as much as 2 parts, but certainly no more)

Further to this, the same colour, albeit in glossy finish, (Glossy Sea Blue, FS15042)
was used as the overall colour of USN aircraft after 1943. I believe that the same finish
could be achieved by using the above mix, and clear-coating afterwards.
XF-17 – SEA BLUE: 6
XF-8 – FLAT BLUE: 6
XF-53 – NEUTRAL GREY: 1

Cockpit colour (Nakajima)

XF-62 – OLIVE DRAB: 3
XF-4 – YELLOW GREEN: 1

Spitfire interior
Military: United Kingdom

XF-5 – FLAT GREEN: 1
XF-21 – SKY: 3
XF-65 – FIELD GREY: 1

Zinc Chromate

Aircraft: United States
Approximate FS33481
XF-3 – FLAT YELLOW: 2
XF-5 – FLAT GREEN: 1

Weathering Mixes

Burnt steel

X11 – CHROME SILVER: 4
X12 – GOLD LEAF: 4
XF-64 – RED BROWN: 2

Brake Dust

XF-1 – FLAT BLACK: 4
XF-7 – FLAT RED: 5
X21 – FLAT BASE: 1

Cordite Stain

XF-2 – FLAT WHITE: 6
XF-63 – GERMAN GREY: 2
X21 – FLAT BASE: 1

Fresh Blood

X27 – CLEAR RED: 8
X25 – CLEAR GREEN: 1
X7 – RED: 1

Normandy Dust

XF-52 – FLAT EARTH: 5
XF-2 – FLAT WHITE: 3
XF-64 – RED BROWN: 2

Petrol Stain

X22 – CLEAR: 6
X24 – CLEAR YELLOW: 2
X19 – SMOKE: 2

Road Dirt

XF-52 – FLAT EARTH: 6
XF-1 – FLAT BLACK: 3
X21 – FLAT BASE: 1

Tank Track Colour

XF-64 – RED BROWN: 5
XF-2 – FLAT WHITE: 3
XF-52 – FLAT EARTH: 1
X21 – FLAT BASE: 1

Tire Black

XF-1 – FLAT BLACK: 1
XF-63 – GERMAN GREY: 1
XF-64 – RED BROWN: 1
X21 – FLAT BASE: 1

Vietnam Red Dust

XF-52 – FLAT EARTH: 5
XF-7 – FLAT RED: 4
X21 – FLAT BASE: 1

Various Military Colours

Canvas

General: United States From:
XF-49 – KHAKI: 1
XF-65 – FIELD GREY: 1

Olive Drab

Military: United States
World War II US Army Olive Drab. Scale effect for 1/35th scale.
XF-51 – KHAKI DRAB: 45
XF-62 – OLIVE DRAB: 45
XF-2 – FLAT WHITE: 10

Periscope Green

Paint Periscope first with Flat aluminum, then give three coats of the following mix,
allowing time to dry for each coat:
X23 – CLEAR BLUE: 1
X25 – CLEAR GREEN: 2

Soviet Olive Green (Modern)

Military: Russia From: Custom Mix
XF-58 – OLIVE GREEN: 10
XF-2 – FLAT WHITE: 2
XF-3 – FLAT YELLOW: 1

Armour Interior Green

From: Tamiya M2 Bradley
XF-5 – FLAT GREEN: 4
XF-2 – FLAT WHITE: 1

MERDEC Colours – US Army Camo from the 1980s

MERDC Brown

Military: United States
XF-2 – FLAT WHITE: 1
XF-64 – RED BROWN: 1

MERDC Dark Green

Military: United States
XF-5 – FLAT GREEN: 1
XF-11 – J.N. GREEN: 1

MERDC Forest Green

Military: United States
XF-5 – FLAT GREEN: 1
XF-13 – J.A. GREEN: 1

MERDC Light Sand

Military: United States
XF-2 – FLAT WHITE: 1
XF-57 – BUFF: 1

MERDC Loam Green

Military: United States
XF-5 – FLAT GREEN: 1
XF-57 – BUFF: 3

MERDC Pale Brown

Military: United States
XF-52 – FLAT EARTH: 1
XF-57 – BUFF: 8

MERDC Pale Green

Military: United States
XF-65 – FIELD GREY: 1

MERDC Sand

Military: United States
XF-2 – FLAT WHITE: 1
XF-57 – BUFF: 1

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HOBBIES & BEYOND TAMIYA PAINT THINNERS SCIENCE

WHY USE TAMIYA X-20A & LACQUER THINNERS

WHY USE TAMIYA X-20A & LACQUER THINNERS

Why use TAMIYA THINNERS such as X-20A and Lacquer Thinner when as we have all seen DIY Videos on YouTube of scale modellers making up their own 200L or 50 Gal Drums of “thinner” for the same price of a 250ml bottle of thinner from the hobby store.

Yep, a little bit of this and a little of that, bought by the gallon or 4L jugs works wonders…right‽

Now you are ready to paint that expensive model, with expensive paint with home brewed moonshine thinner. Wait a minute, did you just hear that needle drag across the record in your mind like I did?…my brain telling me…there is something wrong with this picture?

Wait a minute, let’s think this through. Our kit cost us maybe $100 of more for a good one to hundreds or more for larger scale like the TRUMPETER King Tiger 1/16 scale or DKM U-Boat Type VIIC U-552 at 1/48 scale, both monsters in their own right, with thousands of parts. Next we add after market Photo Etch, some Resin Figures, various accessories, Metal Barrels and Metal Tracks, now we have spent another $100 or more depending on the desired enhanced outcome.

Next we purchase TAMIYA PAINTS because we all know they are high quality, one of the finest. Skilled advanced modellers know how to formulate the correct desired colours drop by drop giving them an endless array of colour combinations for accurate representation of all fighting forces, land, sea and air. What about scale effect, yes that too!

Drops, what do you mean drops you ask? Yes when using an airbrush most paint jobs are completed using a matter of drops, not bottles, or spray cans full, but drops. How many drops make up 1ml? We will answer that in a bit.

In modelling, tools are everything and one of the most essential is an airbrush. To a beginner an airbrush is expensive, yes for a good one like IWATA, Harder & Steenbeck, or Badger, it is. Experienced modellers will tell you quality is everything.

The bitterness of poor quality remains long after the sweet taste of low price is forgotten.

Not understanding an airbrush myself, nor wanting or seeing the need to spend the money when a $3.00 paint brush would do, quickly appreciated airbrush use when introduced to expert, award winning modellers who have become good friends. This is a topic for another day; that being said, the efficiency of paint application and minimal use of thinners and cleaners means an airbrush will pay for itself time and time again over a lifetime of use if properly maintained.

Getting back to thinners, a little knowledge is dangerous and all of a sudden we can be chemists without understanding the science behind the paints.

Are we actually going to mess around with our premium paint chemistry using home made moonshine thinner to save a few dollars? I don’t know about you, after expending much excitement and energy in the satisfying and rewarding build along with the financial commitment, I am not about to hack my paint job with a back room, even use it as mouth wash, super cheap do anything paint thinner.

Like everyone else, I like a bargain and it feels good to be on the cheap at times, but this is not the time to cheap out.

Purchase and use the recommended manufacturer paint thinners because there is science behind it.

The Science of Thinner with Paint

What Makes A Good Paint?

Pigment

Pigment is what gives paint it’s colour, the opacity to cover the substrate.

Vehicle and Binder

Vehicle is the liquid that stick to the surface of the object being painted while the binder keeps it mixed up together for consistency such as acrylic resin.

Carrier

The carrier is the delivery boy of paint, the solvent liquid and dispersant creating a flowing action onto the surface, otherwise the paint would resemble tooth paste.

Additives

Additives are the secret sauce that make the paint great after extensive research and development. Good quality paint doesn’t happen by accident, it’s painstakingly created. Proprietary additives is what makes paint different from one manufacturer to another.

In our next article we will talk about the paint and what makes it ‘paint’.

What Thinner To Use?

Both TAMIYA Thinners X-20A and “plastic friendly” Lacquer Thinner are excellent for TAMIYA Acrylic Paints, each for it’s own application technique.

For a matt finish use X-20A for a beautiful airbrush application. Using Lacquer Thinner creates more bite, meaning bonding more to the plastic styrene surface. Both have excellent adhesion properties and lasting durability.

Advanced and expert modellers will use the thinners to achieve different results.

Thinners also help reduce tip dry, the dried accumulation of pigment on the airbrush needle tip. TAMIYA Paint Retarder is an excellent drying modifier significantly reducing airbrush tip dry and is ideally used for figure painting when using a brush.

 

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RLM Colour Formulas

These recipes have been collected from various sources around the web and Tamiya instructions.  There are duplicates in the list and sometimes they conflict with each other. So... you're mileage may very.  Some of these are probably older mixes and new color releases have superseded the need for that particular color mix. 
LUFTWAFFE
RLM 02--> XF22:1 + XF49:1 or just XF-22
RLM 65--> XF23:1 + XF2:1
RLM 71--> XF62:1 + XF49:1
RLM 74--> XF24:3 + XF27:2
RLM 75--> XF24:5 + XF50:1
RLM 76--> XF2:7 + XF23:1 + XF66:2
RLM 79--> XF59:3 + XF64:1
RLM 80--> XF58
RLM 81--> XF51:1 + XF64:2
RLM 82--> XF5 or XF5:1 + XF2:1 or XF5:1 +XF3:1 (Bright Green)
RLM 83--> XF61 or XF24:1 + XF51:1 or XF24:1 +XF51:1 (Dark Green)
Tamiya instruction sheets: 
LUFTWAFFE 
RLM 02:- XF22:1 + XF49:1 or just XF-22 
RLM 65:- XF23:1 + XF2:1 
RLM 70: XF27 
RLM 71:- XF62:1 + XF49:1 
RLM 74:- XF24:3 + XF27:2 
RLM 75:- XF24:5 + XF50:1 
RLM 76:- XF2:7 + XF23:1 + XF66:2 
RLM 79:- XF59:3 + XF64:1 
RLM 80:- XF58 
RLM 81:- XF51:1 + XF64:2 
RLM 82:- XF5 or XF5:1 + XF2:1 or XF5:1 +XF3:1 (Bright Green) 
RLM 83:- XF61 or XF24:1 + XF51:1 (Dark Green) 
RLM 78:-	XF-23:4 and XF-50:1 
From other modelers: 
RLM 71 XF 61 Dark Green Straight 
RLM 78 is a close match to FS 35414. Use Tamiya XF23 light blue and add white. I think the formula I have is 3 parts XF23 to 1 part XF2. 
RLM 02: XF22:1 + XF49:1 + XF2:2 
RLM 65: XF23:2 + XF2:1 
RLM 66: XF24 Straight from the bottle. 
RLM 70: XF27 Straight from the bottle. Add a drop of black to darken if desired. 
RLM 71: XF62:1 + XF49:1 or XF61:3 + XF2:1 or XF81 straight from the bottle. 
RLM 74: XF24:3 + XF27:2 
RLM 75: XF24:5 + XF50:1 
RLM 76: XF2:7 + XF23:1 + XF66:2 
RLM 78: XF23:4 + XF50:1 
RLM 79: XF59:3 + XF64:1 
RLM 80: XF58:6 + XF2:1 
RLM 81: XF51:1 + XF64:2 OR Dunkelgrun = XF61:4 + XF2:1 (FS34096) 
RLM 82: XF5:1 +XF3:1 (Bright Green) 
RLM 83: XF5 Straight from the bottle. 
RAF:
INTERIOR GREEN---> XF5:1 + XF21:3 + XF65:1
DARK GREEN--> XF58:1 + XF62:5
DARK EARTH--> XF52:1 + XF64:1
OCEAN GRAY--> XF18:1 + XF21:2 + XF24:2
MIDSTONE------> XF59:1 + XF60:1
SKY----------------> XF21
MED. SEA GRAY--> XF19:3 + XF54:5
AZURE BLUE---> X16:2 + XF2:10 + XF18:5
FAA COLORS
Extra Dark Sea Grey: To 50 parts of XF24 (dark grey), add 6 parts XF2 (white), and 3 parts XF8 (flat blue).
Dark Slate Grey: To one bottle of XF22 (RLM Grey), add 35 drops of XF7 (red), and 125 drops of XF1 (flat black).
or
T:XF-11 + 63?
"RLM Grey" (XF-22) is a good match for "Slate Grey", used for RAF Coastal Command finishes, as well as Fleet Air Arm colors.
"Dark Sea Grey" (XF-54) is a good match for "Dark Sea Grey," used for Coastal Command and FAA camouflages. This is also good for the US "Equivalent Color" for "Ocean Grey" ANA 603, used on Mustang IIIs, etc.
'"RLM Gray" (XF-22) for "Slate Grey"
“Light Sea Grey” (XF-25) for "Light Sea Grey" 
"Sky" (XF-21) - I think this is the most accurate version of this color.
"Sky Grey" (XF-19) is perfect for the "Sky Grey" color used on FAA aircraft before they went with the "Sky" lower surfaces, also for the US "Equivalent Color" used for ANA 602
"Medium Grey" (XF-20) is good as "Sea Grey Medium," the lower surface camouflage for RAF aircraft after 1941. 
Here are Tamiya mixes to reproduce some Federal Standards (FS) Colors.
Last updated: 2012-08-11
The hyperlink included with the colors sends you to the Federal Standard 595 Color Server website to give you an idea of how the colors look.
The mix ratios are by parts, i.e. XF2:1 means XF2 Flat White 1 part (1 drop or 1 gallon, the mix stays the same)
Warning: Several mixes I've tested myself (those with an *) but most of them come from Tamiya instructions, articles found in magazines and the web. I find them good but these are in no way definitive. They serve as a general guide that you can modify to taste.
Scale effect: for those who believe, the smaller the scale, the lighter the colors. Thes mixes are formulated for 1/32 but you can add XF2:1 for 1/48 or XF2:2 for 1/72 as a start. Lighten to taste.
Browns X0XXX
*30051 US NATO Brown CARC 383 -- XF10:6+ XF69:1 
http://www.colorserver.net/showcolor.asp?fs=30051
20061 -- Tea Brown (WW2 Japan Propeller) -- X9 Brown:6 + XF7 Red:3 + XF1:1
http://www.colorserver.net/showcolor.asp?fs=20061
30070 -- RAL 8017 WW2 German Red Grown -- XF-64:8 + XF-49:2
http://www.colorserver.net/showcolor.asp?fs=30070
30075 -- XF79
http://www.colorserver.net/showcolor.asp?fs=30075
30108 -- Red Brown -- XF-10
http://www.colorserver.net/showcolor.asp?fs=30108
30111 -- XF68:3 + XF2:1
http://www.colorserver.net/showcolor.asp?fs=30111
30117[/color] – MERDC Brown -- XF64:1 + XF2:1
http://www.colorserver.net/showcolor.asp?fs=30117
[b]30118 – RAF DARK EARTH 
*Mix 1--XF-52:1 + XF64:1 + XF-2:1 
*Mix 2--XF-52 (Tamiya Spitfire VIII 1/32 instruction)
*Mix 3--XF-52:4 + XF-3:2+ XF-51:1 + XF-2:1 
http://www.colorserver.net/showcolor.asp?fs=30118 
30140 -- XF52:1 + XF64:1 (Tamiya F-16 Agg 1/48 Instructions)
http://www.colorserver.net/showcolor.asp?fs=30140
*30145 -- XF52
http://www.colorserver.net/showcolor.asp?fs=30145
*30219 -- RLM 79 -- XF59:6 + XF64:2 + XF2:1 
http://www.colorserver.net/showcolor.asp?fs=30219
30257 –- Australian Army 
*Mix 1 -- XF52:2 + XF15:2 + XF2:1
*Mix 2 -- (MERDC Pale Brown) -- XF-52:1 + XF57:8 
http://www.colorserver.net/showcolor.asp?fs=30257
30266 – RAF MIDSTONE -- XF59:1 + XF60:1+ XF-2:1
http://www.colorserver.net/showcolor.asp?fs=30266
30277 -- MERDC Sand -- XF57:4 + XF63:1
http://www.colorserver.net/showcolor.asp?fs=30277
30279 -- XF79:9 +XF7:1
http://www.colorserver.net/showcolor.asp?fs=30279
30318 -- XF57
http://www.colorserver.net/showcolor.asp?fs=30318
30400 -- XF15:1 + XF2:1 + XF59:1 (Tamiya F-16 Agg 1/48 Instructions)
http://www.colorserver.net/showcolor.asp?fs=30400
Reds X1XXX
*FS 31668 -- PRU Pink -- XF9:1 + XF7:1 + XF2:9
http://www.colorserver.net/showcolor.asp?fs=31668
Oranges X2XXX
22300 -- Orange-yellow japan (trainer/experimental) -- X8:18 + X7:1 
http://www.colorserver.net/showcolor.asp?fs=22300
32519 -- XF15:3 + XF55:1 
http://www.colorserver.net/showcolor.asp?fs=32519
Yellows X3XXX
33245 -- RAL 8000 WW2 German Africa Yellow -- XF-49:8 + X-6:1 + XF-2:2
http://www.colorserver.net/showcolor.asp?fs=33245
33303 -- XF60:3 + XF2:1
http://www.colorserver.net/showcolor.asp?fs=33303
33481 -- RAL 7028 WW2 German Dark Yellow -- XF60:7 + XF2:3
http://www.colorserver.net/showcolor.asp?fs=33481
33522 -- RAL 7028 End of war -- XF-20:1 + XF-2:4 + 1 tiny drop of red
http://www.colorserver.net/showcolor.asp?fs=33522
Greens X4XXX
34036 -- Nakajima Dark Green (Navy) -- XF11:5 + XF2:1
http://www.colorserver.net/showcolor.asp?fs=34036
34050 -- RLM 70 -- XF27:4 + XF2:1
http://www.colorserver.net/showcolor.asp?fs=34050
34052 -- RLM 80 -- XF58:6 + XF2:1
http://www.colorserver.net/showcolor.asp?fs=34052
34056 -- WW2 Soviet -- XF-61:7 + XF-60:3
http://www.colorserver.net/showcolor.asp?fs=34056
34058 -- (Tamiya F-16 Agg 1/48 Instruction) -- XF-70
http://www.colorserver.net/showcolor.asp?fs=34058
34077 -- J.A. Green -- XF-13
http://www.colorserver.net/showcolor.asp?fs=34077
34079 -- RAF DARK GREEN 
*Mix 1 -- XF58:1 + XF62:5 + XF-2:1
*Mix 2 -- New Tamiya Color: Dark Green 2 (RAF)-- XF-81
*Mix 3 -- RLM 71 -- XF62:1 + XF49:1 + XF2:1
*Mix 4 -- XF61:1 + XF65:1 + XF2:1
http://www.colorserver.net/showcolor.asp?fs=34079
34083 -- RAL 6003 WW2 German Dark Green -- XF-61:7 + XF-60:3
http://www.colorserver.net/showcolor.asp?fs=34083
34084 -- RLM 74 -- XF24:2 + XF-51:1 + XF27:1 + XF2:4 
http://www.colorserver.net/showcolor.asp?fs=34084
34086 -- RLM 74 (variation) -- XF24:2 + XF27:1 + XF2:3 
http://www.colorserver.net/showcolor.asp?fs=34086
34088 
Mix 1 -- RLM 81 -- XF61:5 + XF-7:1 + XF2:2
Mix 2 -- WW2 UK+Canada Armor -- XF-62:6 + XF-49:4
http://www.colorserver.net/showcolor.asp?fs=34088
34092
Mix 1 -- Medium Green USAAF -- XF13:1 + XF2:1
Mix 2 -- XF26:3 +XF2:1
http://www.colorserver.net/showcolor.asp?fs=34092
*34094 -- CARC 383 Nato Green -- XF-67
http://www.colorserver.net/showcolor.asp?fs=34094
34096 -- Dark Green
Mix 1 -- Mitsubishi Dark Green -- X5:5 + XF3:3 + X3:2
*Mix 2 -- WW2 US Armor --XF62:4 + XF49:1
*Mix 3 -- RLM 81 -- XF61:4 + XF2:1
http://www.colorserver.net/showcolor.asp?fs=34096
*34097 -- RLM 83 -- XF62:4 + XF2:1
http://www.colorserver.net/showcolor.asp?fs=34097
*34098 -- Cougar/Grizzly/Husky -- XF67:3 + XF59:2
http://www.colorserver.net/showcolor.asp?fs=34098
*34102 -- Forest Green -- XF5:3 + XF13:3 + XF2:1
http://www.colorserver.net/showcolor.asp?fs=34102
*34110 -- France Nato Green -- XF5
http://www.colorserver.net/showcolor.asp?fs=34110
34128 -- Australian Army -- XF-62:3 + XF-52:3 + XF-2:1
http://www.colorserver.net/showcolor.asp?fs=34128
34138 -- RLM 82 -- XF5:1 + XF3:1 + XF2:1 
http://www.colorserver.net/showcolor.asp?fs=34138
34151 -- Loam Green MERDC -- XF5:1 + XF57:3
http://www.colorserver.net/showcolor.asp?fs=34151
*34159 -- XF73:3 + XF2:1
http://www.colorserver.net/showcolor.asp?fs=34159
*34172 -- Cougar Grizzly Husky -- XF70:1 + XF59:3
http://www.colorserver.net/showcolor.asp?fs=34172
*34201 -- XF-49:3 + XF2:1 
http://www.colorserver.net/showcolor.asp?fs=34201
34227 -- RAF INTERIOR GREEN (vert intérieur) 
*Mix 1 -- XF-71:1 + XF-21:1 + XF-2:1
Mix 2 -- XF5:1 + XF-21:3 + XF-65:1 + XF-2:1
http://www.colorserver.net/showcolor.asp?fs=34227
34255 -- Nakajima Interior grey-Green -- XF2:9 + X1:3 + X5:3 + X8:2 
http://www.colorserver.net/showcolor.asp?fs=34255
34424 -- RLM 84 -- XF14
http://www.colorserver.net/showcolor.asp?fs=34424 
34432 -- RLM 84 Variation -- XF12
http://www.colorserver.net/showcolor.asp?fs=34432 
*34504 -- RAF SKY -- XF-21:1 + XF-2:1
http://www.colorserver.net/showcolor.asp?fs=34504
Blues X5XXX
15042 – USN Glossy Sea Blue ANA 623 -- XF-17:1 + XF-8:1
http://www.colorserver.net/showcolor.asp?fs=15042
35045 – USN NON-SPEC. SEA BLUE ANA 607 -- XF-17:5 + XF-8:3 + XF-2:2
http://www.colorserver.net/showcolor.asp?fs=35045
35052 -- XF8:9 + XF7:1
http://www.colorserver.net/showcolor.asp?fs=35052
35109 -- XF8:3 + XF2:4 (Tamiya F-16 Agg 1/48 Instruction)
http://www.colorserver.net/showcolor.asp?fs=35109
35164 – USN INTERMEDIATE BLUE ANA 608 -- XF18:5 + XF-2:3
http://www.colorserver.net/showcolor.asp?fs=35164
35189 – USN BLUE-GREY -- XF18:1 + XF-2:1
http://www.colorserver.net/showcolor.asp?fs=35189
35190 – PRU BLUE -- XF18:1 + X14:2 +XF-2:2
http://www.colorserver.net/showcolor.asp?fs=35190
35231 – RAF AZURE BLUE 
*Mix 1-- X16:2 + XF-2:4 
*Mix 2-- XF-8:1 + XF-2:3 (Tamiya Spit VIII 1/32 instructions)
http://www.colorserver.net/showcolor.asp?fs=35231
35237 
*Mix 1 -- XF-66:1 + XF-19:1 + XF-2:2 + 
*Mix 2 -- CF-18 -- XF66:1 + XF54:1 + XF2:2 
http://www.colorserver.net/showcolor.asp?fs=35237
35250 -- XF8:5 + XF19:1 + XF2:5 
http://www.colorserver.net/showcolor.asp?fs=35250
35352 -- RLM 65 -- XF23:4+ XF2:1
http://www.colorserver.net/showcolor.asp?fs=35352
35414 -- RLM 78 -- XF23:5 + XF54:1 + XF2:2
http://www.colorserver.net/showcolor.asp?fs=35414 
35450 -- X14:1 + XF2:6 (Tamiya F-16 Agg 1/48 Instructions)
http://www.colorserver.net/showcolor.asp?fs=35450
35488 -- SU-27 -- XF8:5 + XF19:1 + XF2:10 
http://www.colorserver.net/showcolor.asp?fs=35488
35526 -- XF8:1 + XF2:10 (Tamiya F-16 Agg 1/48 Instruction)
http://www.colorserver.net/showcolor.asp?fs=35526
35622 -- RLM 76 and 84(blue variation) 
*Mix 1 -- XF18:1 + XF24:5 + XF2:10
*Mix 2 -- XF23:1 + XF2:3 (Tamiya F-16 Agg 1/48 Instruction)
http://www.colorserver.net/showcolor.asp?fs=35622
Greys X6XXX
36008 -- XF-63:9 + XF19:1
http://www.colorserver.net/showcolor.asp?fs=36008
36081 -- RAL 7021 Gris Panzer Allemand 1 (Dark) -- XF-63:7 + XF-60:3
http://www.colorserver.net/showcolor.asp?fs=36081
36118
*Mix 1-- RLM 74 -- XF-24:10 + X-14:1 + XF-2:1
*Mix 2-- RAL 7021 German Panzer Grey 2 (Pale) --XF-63:7 + XF-2:3
http://www.colorserver.net/showcolor.asp?fs=36118
36122 -- RLM 75 -- XF66:6+XF7:2+XF18:1+ XF2:2
http://www.colorserver.net/showcolor.asp?fs=36122
36152 – RAF OCEAN GRAY 
*Mix 1-- XF18:1 + XF-21:2 + XF24:2 + XF-2:1
*Mix 2-- New Tamiya Color: Ocean Gray 2 (RAF)-- XF-82
http://www.colorserver.net/showcolor.asp?fs=36152
36165 -- RLM 02- FS 36165 -- XF22:1 + XF49:1 + XF2:2
http://www.colorserver.net/showcolor.asp?fs=36165
*36173 -- (Perfect for C-17 1/144) -- XF-54:3 + XF-24:1 + XF-2:4 
http://www.colorserver.net/showcolor.asp?fs=36173
36176 -- XF-66:3 + XF-2:1
http://www.colorserver.net/showcolor.asp?fs=36176
36231 -- XF-83:1 + XF-66:1 + XF-54:1 + XF-2:3
http://www.colorserver.net/showcolor.asp?fs=36231
36251 -- XF-83:3 + XF-2:1
http://www.colorserver.net/showcolor.asp?fs=36251
36270
*Mix 1-- XF54:6 + XF66:1 + XF2:6
*Mix 2-- RAF MEDIUM SEA GRAY -- XF-19:3 + XF-54:5 + XF-2:1
*Mix 3-- New Tamiya Color: Medium Sea Gray 2 (RAF) -- XF-83
http://www.colorserver.net/showcolor.asp?fs=36270
36314 -- XF-19
http://www.colorserver.net/showcolor.asp?fs=36314
36320
*Mix 1-- XF-66:1 + XF-54:1 + XF-2:3
*Mix 2-- XF19 (Tamiya F-16 Agg 1/48 Instructions)
http://www.colorserver.net/showcolor.asp?fs=36320
36375 Light Ghost Grey
*Mix 1-- XF-19:1 + XF-2:3 
*Mix 2-- CF-18 -- XF19:1 + XF54:1 + XF2:4 
*Mix 3-- Mitsubishi Light Gray FS26375 -- XF2:18 + XF1:1
http://www.colorserver.net/showcolor.asp?fs=36375
36440 Light Gull Grey
*Mix 1 -- XF-19:1 + XF-80:1 + XF-2:2
*Mix 2 -- USN LIGHT GREY -- XF-19:2 + XF-2:1 (add a tiny drop of yellow)
http://www.colorserver.net/showcolor.asp?fs=36440
36473 Light Aircraft Grey - RLM 76 -- XF23:1 + XF66:2 + XF2:7
http://www.colorserver.net/showcolor.asp?fs=36473
36495 -- XF19:1 + XF2:4
http://www.colorserver.net/showcolor.asp?fs=36495
36622 -- XF80:2 + XF2:7
http://www.colorserver.net/showcolor.asp?fs=36628
36628 -- XF80:1 + XF2:4
http://www.colorserver.net/showcolor.asp?fs=36628
ome Tamiya Mixes from Tamiya kit instructions:
RAF
INTERIOR GREEN:- XF5:1 + XF21:3 + XF65:1 
DARK GREEN:- XF58:1 + XF62:5 
DARK EARTH:- XF52:1 + XF64:1 
OCEAN GRAY:- XF18:1 + XF21:2 + XF24:2 
MIDSTONE:- XF59:1 + XF60:1 
SKY:- XF21 
MED. SEA GRAY:- XF19:3 + XF54:5 
AZURE BLUE:- X16:2 + XF2:10 + XF18:5 
AS6 Olive Drab  =  XF-62
AS7 Neutral Gray  =  XF-53
AS8 Navy Blue  =  XF-17:5 + XF-8:3 + XF-2:2
AS9 Dark Green  =  XF-58:1 + XF-62:5
AS10 Ocean Gray  =  XF-18:1 + XF-21:2 + XF-24:2
AS11 Medium Sea Gray  =  XF-19:3 + XF-54:5
AS12 Bare-Metal Silver
AS13 Green
AS14 Olive Green
AS15 Tan
AS16 Light Gray
AS17 Dark Green (IJA)
AS18 Light Gray (IJA)
AS19 Intermediate Blue (U.S.Navy) =  XF-18:5 + XF-2:4
AS20 Insignia White (U.S.Navy)  =  XF-2:10 + XF-55:1
AS21 Dark Green 2 (IJN)
AS22 Dark Earth  =  XF-52:1 + XF-64:1
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